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《以斯拉記》 - 被擄、歸回、重建(一)

第十一課 - 歸回的被擄者名單(二)

經文:拉二:1 - 70

主旨:

“于是,祭司、利未人民中的一些人、歌唱的、守門的、尼提寧并以色列眾人,各住在自己的城里。” -- 被擄七十年后,猶太人終于回到自己的故鄉。

比較《以斯拉記》第二章和《尼希米記》第七章的兩份歸回的被擄者名單。

分析詩篇一百二十六:1 - 6 的“美夢成真”。
 

1。拉二:36 - 39  “36祭司耶書亞家耶大雅的子孫(the children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua)九百七十三名﹔37音麥的子孫(The children of Immer)一千零五十二名﹔38巴施戶珥的子孫(The children of Pashur)一千二百四十七名﹔39哈琳的子孫(The children of Harim)一千零一十七名。”

《新譯本》:36祭司的數目記在下面:耶書亞家的耶大雅的子孫九百七十三人。37音麥的子孫一千零五十二人。38巴施戶珥的子孫一千二百四十七人。39哈琳的子孫一千零一十七人。

KJV:36 The priests: the children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua, nine hundred seventy and three. 37 The children of Immer, a thousand fifty and two. 38 The children of Pashur, a thousand two hundred forty and seven. 39 The children of Harim, a thousand and seventeen.

ESV:The priests: the sons of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua, 973. 37 The sons of Immer, 1,052. 38 The sons of Pashhur, 1,247. 39 The sons of Harim, 1,017.


上一課,我們已經看了歸回的被擄者名單中的猶大和便雅憫的領袖、家族和各城邑居民。這一段記錄了名單中祭司的子孫,同樣的,《尼希米記》第七章也有一份記錄。


尼七:39 - 42  “39祭司:耶書亞家,耶大雅的子孫(the children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua)九百七十三名﹔40音麥的子孫(The children of Immer)一千零五十二名﹔41巴施戶珥的子孫(The children of Pashur)一千二百四十七名﹔42哈琳的子孫(The children of Harim)一千零一十七名。”

KJV:39 The priests: the children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua, nine hundred seventy and three. 40 The children of Immer, a thousand fifty and two. 41 The children of Pashur, a thousand two hundred forty and seven. 42 The children of Harim, a thousand and seventeen.

 


 

《以斯拉記》第二章

《尼希米記》第七章

經節

祭司

人數

經節

祭司

人數

36

耶書亞家耶大雅的子孫(the children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua)

973

39

耶書亞家,耶大雅的子孫(the children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua)

973

37

音麥的子孫(The children of Immer)

1052

40

音麥的子孫(The children of Immer)

1052

38

巴施戶珥的子孫(The children of Pashur)

1247

41

巴施戶珥的子孫(The children of Pashur)

1247

39

哈琳的子孫(The children of Harim)

1017

42

哈琳的子孫(The children of Harim)

1017

共 4289

共 4289

兩份名單完全吻合


2。拉二:40 - 42  “40利未人:何達威雅的后裔,就是耶書亞和甲篾的子孫(the children of Jeshua and Kadmiel, of the children of Hodaviah)七十四名。41歌唱的:亞薩的子孫(the children of Asaph)一百二十八名。42守門的:沙龍的子孫(the children of Shallum)、亞特的子孫(the children of Ater)、達們的子孫(the children of Talmon)、亞谷的子孫(the children of Akkub)、哈底大的子孫(the children of Hatita)、朔拜的子孫(the children of Shobai)共一百三十九名。”

《新譯本》:40利未人的數目記在下面:何達威雅的子孫,就是耶書亞和甲篾的子孫,七十四人。41負責歌唱的:亞薩的子孫一百二十八人。42負責守門的:沙龍的子孫、亞特的子孫、達們的子孫、亞谷的子孫、哈底大的子孫和朔拜的子孫,共一百三十九人。

KJV:40 The Levites: the children of Jeshua and Kadmiel, of the children of Hodaviah, seventy and four. 41 The singers: the children of Asaph, an hundred twenty and eight. 42 The children of the porters: the children of Shallum, the children of Ater, the children of Talmon, the children of Akkub, the children of Hatita, the children of Shobai, in all an hundred thirty and nine.

ESV:40The Levites: the sons of Jeshua and Kadmiel, of the sons of Hodaviah, 74. 41 The singers: the sons of Asaph, 128. 42 The sons of the gatekeepers: the sons of Shallum, the sons of Ater, the sons of Talmon, the sons of Akkub, the sons of Hatita, and the sons of Shobai, in all 139.


按著亞倫的等次作祭司的,才能執行聖殿禮儀的職責(亞倫家族的利未人)﹔其余的利未人(亞倫家族以外的利未人)仍可在聖殿事奉,但不能作祭司的職事。這一段記錄了名單中利未人的子孫。歌唱的亞薩的子孫和守門的人都是利未人。

亞薩和他的子孫都是在會幕和聖殿里負責音樂詩班的職司:

代下六:31-33,39

31約柜安設之后,大衛派人在耶和華殿中管理歌唱的事。
32他們就在會幕前當歌唱的差,及至所羅門在耶路撒冷建造了耶和華的殿,他們便按著班次供職。
33供職的人和他們的子孫記在下面。哥轄的子孫中有歌唱的希幔。。。哥轄是利未的兒子,利未是以色列的兒子。
39希幔的族兄亞薩是比利家的兒子,亞薩在希幔右邊供職。比利家是示米亞的兒子。。

代上十五:11-21

11大衛將祭司撒督和亞比亞他并利未人烏列、亞帥雅、約珥、示瑪雅、以列、亞米拿達召來,
12對他們說:“你們是利未人的族長,你們和你們的弟兄應當自潔,好將耶和華以色列神的約柜抬到我所預備的地方。
13因你們先前沒有抬這約柜,按定例求問耶和華我們的上帝,所以他刑罰(注:原文作"闖殺")我們。”
14于是,祭司利未人自潔,好將耶和華以色列上帝的約柜抬上來。
15利未子孫就用杠肩抬上帝的約柜,是照耶和華借摩西所吩咐的。
16大衛吩咐利未人的族長,派他們歌唱的弟兄用琴瑟和鈸作樂,歡歡喜喜地大聲歌頌。
17于是,利未人派約珥的兒子希幔和他弟兄中比利家的兒子亞薩,并他們族弟兄米拉利子孫里古沙雅的兒子以探。
18其次還有他們的弟兄撒迦利雅、便雅薛、示米拉末、耶歇、烏尼、以利押、比拿雅、瑪西雅、瑪他提雅、以利斐利戶、彌克尼雅,并守門的俄別以東和耶利。
19這樣,派歌唱的希幔、亞薩、以探敲銅鈸,大發響聲﹔
20派撒迦利雅、雅薛、示米拉末、耶歇、烏尼、以利押、瑪西雅、比拿雅鼓瑟,調用女音﹔
21又派瑪他提雅、以利斐利戶、彌克尼雅、俄別以東、耶利、亞撒西雅領首彈琴,調用第八。

代上十六:4-7

4大衛派几個利未人在耶和華的約柜前事奉、頌揚、稱謝、贊美耶和華以色列的上帝。
5為首的是亞薩,其次是撒迦利雅、雅薛、示米拉末、耶歇、瑪他提雅、以利押、比拿雅、俄別以東、耶利,鼓瑟彈琴﹔惟有亞薩敲鈸,大發響聲﹔
6祭司比拿雅和雅哈悉常在神的約柜前吹號。
7那日,大衛初次借亞薩和他的弟兄,以詩歌稱頌耶和華,說。。

代上二十五:1-6

1大衛和眾首領分派亞薩、希幔并耶杜頓的子孫彈琴、鼓瑟、敲鈸、唱歌(注:原文作"說預言"。本章同)。他們供職的人數記在下面:
2亞薩的兒子撒刻、約瑟、尼探雅、亞薩利拉都歸亞薩指教,遵王的旨意唱歌。
3耶杜頓的兒子基大利、西利、耶篩亞、哈沙比雅、瑪他提雅、示每,共六人,都歸他們父親耶杜頓指教,彈琴、唱歌、稱謝頌贊耶和華。
4希幔的兒子布基雅、瑪探雅、烏薛、細布業、耶利摩、哈拿尼雅、哈拿尼、以利亞他、基大利提、羅幔提以謝、約施比加沙、瑪羅提、何提、瑪哈秀,
5這都是希幔的兒子,吹角頌贊。希幔奉上帝之命作王的先見。神賜給希幔十四個兒子、三個女兒,
6都歸他們父親指教,在耶和華的殿唱歌、敲鈸、彈琴、鼓瑟,辦上帝殿的事務。亞薩、耶杜頓、希幔都是王所命定的。

守門的可以是祭司,也可以是利未人,他們是按著班次看守聖殿的門,和作其他雜務,如聖殿的倉庫。

《尼希米記》第七章也有一份記錄。


尼七:43 - 45  “43利未人:何達威的后裔,就是耶書亞和甲篾的子孫(the children of Jeshua, of Kadmiel, and of the children of Hodevah)七十四名。44歌唱的:亞薩的子孫(the children of Asaph)一百四十八名。45守門的:沙龍的子孫(the children of Shallum)、亞特的子孫(the children of Ater)、達們的子孫(the children of Talmon)、亞谷的子孫(the children of Akkub)、哈底大的子孫(the children of Hatita)、朔拜的子孫(the children of Shobai)共一百三十八名。”

KJV:43 The Levites: the children of Jeshua, of Kadmiel, and of the children of Hodevah, seventy and four. 44 The singers: the children of Asaph, an hundred forty and eight. 45 The porters: the children of Shallum, the children of Ater, the children of Talmon, the children of Akkub, the children of Hatita, the children of Shobai, an hundred thirty and eight.


 

《以斯拉記》第二章

《尼希米記》第七章

           

經節

利未人

人數

經節

利未人

人數

           

40

何達威雅的后裔,就是耶書亞和甲篾的子孫(the children of Jeshua and Kadmiel, of the children of Hodaviah)

74

43

何達威的后裔,就是耶書亞和甲篾的子孫(the children of Jeshua, of Kadmiel, and of the children of Hodevah)

74

           
 

歌唱的

   

歌唱的

 
           

41

亞薩的子孫(the children of Asaph)

128

44

亞薩的子孫(the children of Asaph)

148

           
 

守門的

   

守門的

 
           

42

沙龍的子孫(the children of Shallum)、亞特的子孫(the children of Ater)、達們的子孫(the children of Talmon)、亞谷的子孫(the children of Akkub)、哈底大的子孫(the children of Hatita)、朔拜的子孫(the children of Shobai)

139

45

沙龍的子孫(the children of Shallum)、亞特的子孫(the children of Ater)、達們的子孫(the children of Talmon)、亞谷的子孫(the children of Akkub)、哈底大的子孫(the children of Hatita)、朔拜的子孫(the children of Shobai)

138

           
   

共 341

   

共 360

           
   

兩份名單的數字有差異

 


3。拉二:43 - 54  “43尼提寧(Nethinims)(注:就是"殿役"):西哈的子孫(the children of Ziha)、哈蘇巴的子孫(the children of Hasupha)、答巴俄的子孫(the children of Tabbaoth)、44基綠的子孫(The children of Keros)、西亞的子孫(the children of Siaha)、巴頓的子孫(the children of Padon)、45利巴拿的子孫(he children of Lebanah)、哈迦巴的子孫(the children of Hagabah)、亞谷的子孫(the children of Akkub)、46哈甲的子孫(The children of Hagab)、薩買的子孫(the children of Shalmai)、哈難的子孫(the children of Hanan)、47吉德的子孫(The children of Giddel)、迦哈的子孫(the children of Gahar)、利亞雅的子孫(the children of Reaiah)、48利汛的子孫(The children of Rezin)、尼哥大的子孫(the children of Nekoda)、迦散的子孫(the children of Gazzam)、49烏撒的子孫(The children of Uzza)、巴西亞的子孫(The children of Paseah)、比賽的子孫(the children of Besai)、50押拿的子孫(The children of Asnah)、米烏寧的子孫(the children of Mehunim)、尼普心的子孫(the children of Nephusim)、51巴卜的子孫(The children of Bakbuk)、哈古巴的子孫(the children of Hakupha)、哈忽的子孫(the children of Harhur,)、52巴洗律的子孫(The children of Bazluth)、米希大的子孫(the children of Mehida)、哈沙的子孫(the children of Harsha)、53巴柯的子孫(The children of Barkos)、西西拉的子孫(the children of Sisera)、答瑪的子孫(the children of Thamah)、54尼細亞的子孫(The children of Neziah)、哈提法的子孫(the children of Hatipha)。”

《新譯本》:43殿役的數目記在下面:西哈的子孫、哈蘇巴的子孫、答巴俄的子孫、44基綠的子孫、西亞的子孫、巴頓的子孫、45利巴拿的子孫、哈迦巴的子孫、亞谷的子孫、46哈甲的子孫(the children of Hagab)、薩買的子孫(the children of Shalmai)、哈難的子孫(the children of Hanan)、47吉德的子孫、迦哈的子孫、利亞雅的子孫、48利汛的子孫、尼哥大的子孫、迦散的子孫、49烏撒的子孫、巴西亞的子孫、比塞的子孫、50押拿的子孫、米烏寧的子孫、尼普心的子孫、51巴卜的子孫、哈古巴的子孫、哈忽的子孫、52巴洗律的子孫、米希大的子孫、哈沙的子孫、53巴柯的子孫、西西拉的子孫、答瑪的子孫、54尼細亞的子孫和哈提法的子孫。

KJV:43 The Nethinims: the children of Ziha, the children of Hasupha, the children of Tabbaoth, 44 The children of Keros, the children of Siaha, the children of Padon, 45 The children of Lebanah, the children of Hagabah, the children of Akkub, 46 The children of Hagab, the children of Shalmai, the children of Hanan, 47 The children of Giddel, the children of Gahar, the children of Reaiah, 48 The children of Rezin, the children of Nekoda, the children of Gazzam, 49 The children of Uzza, the children of Paseah, the children of Besai, 50 The children of Asnah, the children of Mehunim, the children of Nephusim, 51 The children of Bakbuk, the children of Hakupha, the children of Harhur, 52 The children of Bazluth, the children of Mehida, the children of Harsha, 53 The children of Barkos, the children of Sisera, the children of Thamah, 54 The children of Neziah, the children of Hatipha.

ESV:43 The temple servants: the sons of Ziha, the sons of Hasupha, the sons of Tabbaoth, 44 the sons of Keros, the sons of Siaha, the sons of Padon, 45 the sons of Lebanah, the sons of Hagabah, the sons of Akkub, 46 the sons of Hagab, the sons of Shamlai, the sons of Hanan, 47 the sons of Giddel, the sons of Gahar, the sons of Reaiah, 48 the sons of Rezin, the sons of Nekoda, the sons of Gazzam, 49 the sons of Uzza, the sons of Paseah, the sons of Besai, 50 the sons of Asnah, the sons of Meunim, the sons of Nephisim, 51 the sons of Bakbuk, the sons of Hakupha, the sons of Harhur, 52 the sons of Bazluth, the sons of Mehida, the sons of Harsha, 53 the sons of Barkos, the sons of Sisera, the sons of Temah, 54 the sons of Neziah, and the sons of Hatipha.


這一段記錄了名單中尼提寧(Nethinims)(注:就是"殿役")的子孫。什么是尼提寧?在代上九:1-2 有一份從巴比倫歸回之人的名單(我們以后查考《尼希米記》第十一章的時候會再提到),那里也提到“尼提寧”:

1以色列人都按家譜計算,寫在以色列諸王記上。猶大人因犯罪就被擄到巴比倫。
2先從巴比倫回來住在自己地業城邑中的有以色列人、祭司、利未人、尼提寧的首領。

拉八:20 “從前大衛和眾首領派尼提寧服事利未人。。”尼提寧是代表聖殿事奉人員中最低的一級。《七十士譯本》翻譯作“獻身者”﹔猶太歷史學家約瑟夫(37年-100年),稱他們為“殿役”(《猶太古史》)。猶太經典他勒目(Talmud)稱尼提寧是基遍人的后裔,當年他們以詭計騙以色列人與他們立約,不傷害他們,約書亞令他們作以色列人的奴仆,“為我上帝的殿作劈柴挑水的人。”(書九:23)

《尼希米記》第七章也有一份記錄尼提寧的名單:

尼七:46 - 56  “46尼提寧(注:就是"殿役"):西哈的子孫(the children of Ziha)、哈蘇巴的子孫(the children of Hashupha)、答巴俄的子孫(the children of Tabbaoth)、47基綠的子孫(The children of Keros)、西亞的子孫(the children of Sia)、巴頓的子孫(the children of Padon)、48利巴拿的子孫(The children of Lebana)、哈迦巴的子孫(the children of Hagaba)、薩買的子孫(the children of Shalmai)、49哈難的子孫(The children of Hanan)、吉德的子孫(the children of Giddel)、迦哈的子孫(the children of Gahar)、50利亞雅的子孫(The children of Reaiah)、利汛的子孫(the children of Rezin)、尼哥大的子孫(the children of Nekoda)、51迦散的子孫(The children of Gazzam)、烏撒的子孫(the children of Uzza)、巴西亞的子孫(the children of Phaseah)、52比賽的子孫(The children of Besai)、米烏寧的子孫(the children of Meunim)、尼普心的子孫(the children of Nephishesim)、53巴卜的子孫(The children of Bakbuk)、哈古巴的子孫(the children of Hakupha)、哈忽的子孫(the children of Harhur)、54巴洗律的子孫(The children of Bazlith)、米希大的子孫(the children of Mehida)、哈沙的子孫(the children of Harsha)、55巴柯的子孫(The children of Barkos)、西西拉的子孫(the children of Sisera)、答瑪的子孫(the children of Tamah)、56尼細亞的子孫(The children of Neziah)、哈提法的子孫(the children of Hatipha)。”

KJV:46 The Nethinims: the children of Ziha, the children of Hashupha, the children of Tabbaoth, 47 The children of Keros, the children of Sia, the children of Padon, 48 The children of Lebana, the children of Hagaba, the children of Shalmai, 49 The children of Hanan, the children of Giddel, the children of Gahar, 50 The children of Reaiah, the children of Rezin, the children of Nekoda, 51 The children of Gazzam, the children of Uzza, the children of Phaseah, 52 The children of Besai, the children of Meunim, the children of Nephishesim, 53 The children of Bakbuk, the children of Hakupha, the children of Harhur, 54 The children of Bazlith, the children of Mehida, the children of Harsha, 55 The children of Barkos, the children of Sisera, the children of Tamah, 56 The children of Neziah, the children of Hatipha.


 

《以斯拉記》第二章

《尼希米記》第七章

經節

尼提寧

人數

經節

尼提寧

人數

43

西哈的子孫(the children of Ziha)、哈蘇巴的子孫(the children of Hasupha)、答巴俄的子孫(the children of Tabbaoth)

46

西哈的子孫(the children of Ziha)、哈蘇巴的子孫(the children of Hashupha)、答巴俄的子孫(the children of Tabbaoth)

44

基綠的子孫(The children of Keros)、西亞的子孫(the children of Siaha)、巴頓的子孫(the children of Padon)

47

基綠的子孫(The children of Keros)、西亞的子孫(the children of Sia)、巴頓的子孫(the children of Padon)

45

利巴拿的子孫(he children of Lebanah)、哈迦巴的子孫(the children of Hagabah)、亞谷的子孫(the children of Akkub)

48

利巴拿的子孫(The children of Lebana)、哈迦巴的子孫(the children of Hagaba)、

46

哈甲的子孫(The children of Hagab)、薩買的子孫(the children of Shalmai)、哈難的子孫(the children of Hanan)

48,49

薩買的子孫(the children of Shalmai) 、哈難的子孫(The children of Hanan)

47

吉德的子孫(The children of Giddel)、迦哈的子孫(the children of Gahar)、利亞雅的子孫(the children of Reaiah)

49,50

吉德的子孫(the children of Giddel)、迦哈的子孫(the children of Gahar)、利亞雅的子孫(The children of Reaiah)

48

利汛的子孫(The children of Rezin)、尼哥大的子孫(the children of Nekoda)、迦散的子孫(the children of Gazzam)

50,51

利汛的子孫(the children of Rezin)、尼哥大的子孫(the children of Nekoda)、迦散的子孫(The children of Gazzam)

49

烏撒的子孫(The children of Uzza)、巴西亞的子孫(The children of Paseah)、比賽的子孫(the children of Besai)

51,52

烏撒的子孫(the children of Uzza)、巴西亞的子孫(the children of Phaseah)、比賽的子孫(The children of Besai)

50

押拿的子孫(The children of Asnah)、米烏寧的子孫(the children of Mehunim)、尼普心的子孫(the children of Nephusim)

52

米烏寧的子孫(the children of Meunim)、尼普心的子孫(the children of Nephishesim)

51

巴卜的子孫(The children of Bakbuk)、哈古巴的子孫(the children of Hakupha)、哈忽的子孫(the children of Harhur,)

53

巴卜的子孫(The children of Bakbuk)、哈古巴的子孫(the children of Hakupha)、哈忽的子孫(the children of Harhur)

52

巴洗律的子孫(The children of Bazluth)、米希大的子孫(the children of Mehida)、哈沙的子孫(the children of Harsha)

54

巴洗律的子孫(The children of Bazlith)、米希大的子孫(the children of Mehida)、哈沙的子孫(the children of Harsha)

53

巴柯的子孫(The children of Barkos)、西西拉的子孫(the children of Sisera)、答瑪的子孫(the children of Thamah)

55

巴柯的子孫(The children of Barkos)、西西拉的子孫(the children of Sisera)、答瑪的子孫(the children of Tamah)

54

尼細亞的子孫(The children of Neziah)、哈提法的子孫(the children of Hatipha)

56

尼細亞的子孫(The children of Neziah)、哈提法的子孫(the children of Hatipha)

《以斯拉記》的名單多了三個家族的子孫(以紅字表示

人數:參下段“所羅門仆人 的后裔”


4。拉二:55 - 58  “55所羅門仆人的后裔,就是瑣太的子孫(the children of Sotai)、瑣斐列的子孫(the children of Sophereth)、比路大的子孫(the children of Peruda)、56雅拉的子孫(The children of Jaalah)、達昆的子孫(the children of Darkon)、吉德的子孫(the children of Giddel)、57示法提雅的子孫 (The children of Shephatiah)、哈替的子孫(the children of Hattil)、玻黑列哈斯巴音的子孫(the children of Pochereth of Zebaim)、亞米的子孫(the children of Ami)。58尼提寧(Nethinims)和所羅門仆人的后裔 (the children of Solomon's servants)共三百九十二名。

《新譯本》:55所羅門仆人的子孫的數目記在下面:瑣太的子孫、瑣斐列的子孫、比路大的子孫、56雅拉的子孫、達昆的子孫、吉德的子孫、57示法提雅的子孫、哈替的子孫、玻黑列.哈斯巴音的子孫和亞米的子孫。58作殿役的和所羅門仆人的子孫共三百九十二人。

KJV:55 The children of Solomon's servants: the children of Sotai, the children of Sophereth, the children of Peruda, 56 The children of Jaalah, the children of Darkon, the children of Giddel, 57 The children of Shephatiah, the children of Hattil, the children of Pochereth of Zebaim, the children of Ami. 58 All the Nethinims, and the children of Solomon's servants, were three hundred ninety and two.

ESV:55 The sons of Solomon's servants: the sons of Sotai, the sons of Hassophereth, the sons of Peruda, 56 the sons of Jaalah, the sons of Darkon, the sons of Giddel, 57 the sons of Shephatiah, the sons of Hattil, the sons of Pochereth-hazzebaim, and the sons of Ami. 58 All the temple servants and the sons of Solomon's servants were 392.


所羅門仆人是什么人?王上九章記載所羅門挑取許多外邦的俘虜作服苦的奴仆建造聖殿和自己的宮殿:(王上九:1,15-22)

1所羅門建造耶和華殿和王宮,并一切所愿意建造的都完畢了,

15所羅門王挑取服苦的人,是為建造耶和華的殿、自己的宮、米羅、耶路撒冷的城牆、夏瑣、米吉多并基色。
16先前埃及王法老上來攻取基色,用火焚燒,殺了城內居住的迦南人,將城賜給他女兒所羅門的妻作妝奩。
17所羅門建造基色、下伯和侖、
18巴拉,并國中曠野里的達莫。
19又建造所有的積貨城,并屯車和馬兵的城,與耶路撒冷、黎巴嫩,以及自己治理的全國中所愿建造的。
20至于國中所剩下不屬以色列人的亞摩利人、赫人、比利洗人、希未人、耶布斯人,
21就是以色列人不能滅盡的,所羅門挑取他們的后裔,作服苦的奴仆,直到今日。
22惟有以色列人,所羅門不使他們作奴仆,乃是作他的戰士、臣仆、統領、軍長、車兵長、馬兵長。

以色列非常寬待奴仆,特別是自己人。申十五:12-15 說:“12你弟兄中,若有一個希伯來男人,或希伯來女人被賣給你,服事你六年,到第七年就要任他自由出去。13你任他自由的時候,不可使他空手而去。14要從你羊群、禾場、酒榨之中,多多地給他,耶和華你的上帝怎樣賜福與你,你也要照樣給他。15要記念你在埃及地作過奴仆,耶和華你的上帝將你救贖。因此,我今日吩咐你這件事。。”對于外邦的奴仆,聖經就沒有交代。這里的所羅門仆人的后裔可能是留在猶太社群,沒有離開的人,所以人數很少。
 

《尼希米記》第七章也有一份記錄所羅門仆人的名單:

尼七:57 - 60  “57所羅門仆人的后裔,就是瑣太的子孫(the children of Sotai)、瑣斐列的子孫(the children of Sophereth)、比路大的子孫(the children of Perida)、58雅拉的子孫(The children of Jaala)、達昆的子孫(the children of Darkon)、吉德的子孫(the children of Giddel)、59示法提雅的子孫(The children of Shephatiah)、哈替的子孫(the children of Hattil)、玻黑列哈斯巴音的子孫(the children of Pochereth of Zebaim)、亞們的子孫(the children of Amon)。60尼提寧(Nethinims)和所羅門仆人的后裔(the children of Solomon's servants)共三百九十二名。”

KJV:57 The children of Solomon's servants: the children of Sotai, the children of Sophereth, the children of Perida, 58 The children of Jaala, the children of Darkon, the children of Giddel, 59 The children of Shephatiah, the children of Hattil, the children of Pochereth of Zebaim, the children of Amon. 60 All the Nethinims, and the children of Solomon's servants, were three hundred ninety and two.


 

《以斯拉記》第二章

《尼希米記》第七章

           

經節

所羅門仆人的后裔

人數

經節

所羅門仆人的后裔

人數

           
           

55

瑣太的子孫(the children of Sotai)、瑣斐列的子孫(the children of Sophereth)、比路大的子孫(the children of Perida)

 

57

瑣太的子孫(the children of Sotai)、瑣斐列的子孫(the children of Sophereth)、比路大的子孫(the children of Perida)

 
           

56

雅拉的子孫(The children of Jaalah)、達昆的子孫(the children of Darkon)、吉德的子孫(the children of Giddel)

 

58

雅拉的子孫(The children of Jaala)、達昆的子孫(the children of Darkon)、吉德的子孫(the children of Giddel)

 
           

57

示法提雅的子孫 (The children of Shephatiah)、哈替的子孫(the children of Hattil)、玻黑列哈斯巴音的子孫(the children of Pochereth of Zebaim)、亞米的子孫(the children of Ami)

 

59

示法提雅的子孫(The children of Shephatiah)、哈替的子孫(the children of Hattil)、玻黑列哈斯巴音的子孫(the children of Pochereth of Zebaim)、亞們的子孫(the children of Amon)

 
           

58

尼提寧(Nethinims)和所羅門仆人的后裔 (the children of Solomon's servants)共三百九十二名

尼提寧(Nethinims)和所羅門仆人的后裔 (the children of Solomon's servants)共三百九十二名

60

尼提寧(Nethinims)和所羅門仆人的后裔(the children of Solomon's servants)共三百九十二名

尼提寧(Nethinims)和所羅門仆人的后裔 (the children of Solomon's servants)共三百九十二名

           
   

兩份名單完全吻合

 
           


5。拉二:59 - 63  “59從特米拉(Tel-melah)、特哈薩(Tel-harsa)、基綠(Cherub)、押但(Addan)、音麥(Immer)上來的,不能指明他們的宗族譜系是以色列人不是。60他們是第來雅的子孫(The children of Delaiah)、多比雅的子孫(the children of Tobiah)、尼哥大的子孫(the children of Nekoda),共六百五十二名。61祭司中哈巴雅的子孫(the children of Habaiah)、哈哥斯的子孫(the children of Koz)、巴西萊的子孫(the children of Barzillai),因為他們的先祖娶了基列人巴西萊(Barzillai the Gileadite)的女兒為妻,所以起名叫巴西萊(Barzillai)。62這三家的人,在族譜之中尋查自己的譜系,卻尋不著,因此算為不潔,不准供祭司的職任。63省長(Tirshatha or governor)對他們說:‘不可吃至聖的物,直到有用烏陵(Urim)和土明(Thummim)決疑的祭司興起來。’”

《新譯本》:59以下這些人是從特.米拉、特.哈薩、基綠、押但、音麥上來的,可是他們無法証明他們的父家或世系是以色列人。60這些人是第萊雅的子孫、多比雅的子孫和尼哥大的子孫,共六百五十二人。61祭司的子孫中,有哈巴雅的子孫、哈哥斯的子孫和巴西萊的子孫﹔巴西萊娶了基列人巴西萊的一個女兒為妻,所以起名叫巴西萊。62這些人查考族譜的記錄,卻找不著,因此他們算為不潔淨,不能作祭司。63省長告訴他們不可吃至聖之物,直等到有能用烏陵和土明來決疑的祭司興起來。

KJV:59 And these were they which went up from Tel-melah, Tel-harsa, Cherub, Addan, and Immer: but they could not shew their father's house, and their seed, whether they were of Israel: 60 The children of Delaiah, the children of Tobiah, the children of Nekoda, six hundred fifty and two. 61 And of the children of the priests: the children of Habaiah, the children of Koz, the children of Barzillai; which took a wife of the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, and was called after their name: 62 These sought their register among those that were reckoned by  genealogy, but they were not found: therefore were they, as polluted, put from the priesthood. 63 And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and with Thummim.

ESV:59 The following were those who came up from Tel-melah, Tel-harsha, Cherub, Addan, and Immer, though they  could not prove their fathers' houses or their descent, whether they belonged to Israel: 60 the sons of Delaiah, the sons of Tobiah, and the sons of Nekoda, 652. 61 Also, of the sons of the priests: the sons of Habaiah, the sons of Hakkoz, and the sons of Barzillai (who had taken a wife from the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, and was called by their name). 62 These sought their registration among those enrolled in the genealogies, but they were not found there, and so they were excluded from the priesthood as unclean. 63 The governor told them that they were not to partake of the most holy food, until there should be a priest to consult Urim and Thummim.


這段經文記載了兩種人:

A。一種是“不能指明他們的宗族譜系是以色列人不是”,共 652 人。宗族或家族譜系是記錄家族歷代人物的名單。舊約聖經記錄了 20多個家譜,新約聖經也記錄了耶穌的家譜。從這一點來看,宗族譜系對以色列人來說是何等的重要,譜系的抄錄和傳承是非常的謹慎,絕對沒有馬虎。 (這并不是說記錄在聖經的譜系不會有抄寫的錯誤。)

B。一種是在族譜里找不到名字的祭司,“因此他們算為不潔淨,不能作祭司。”“省長告訴他們不可吃至聖之物,直等到有能用烏陵和土明來決疑的祭司興起來。”他們是誰呢?他們是“哈巴雅的子孫(the children of Habaiah)、哈哥斯的子孫(the children of Koz)、巴西萊的子孫(the children of Barzillai),因為他們的先祖娶了基列人巴西萊(Barzillai the Gileadite)的女兒為妻,所以起名叫巴西萊(Barzillai)。”基列人巴西萊是誰?

當大衛的孩子押沙龍反叛的時候,在撒下十七:27-29,我們看到巴西萊帶著被、褥和食物供給大衛和跟隨他的人吃。押沙龍反叛失敗后,大衛返回耶路撒冷,撒下十九:31-39 說:

31基列人(Gileadite)巴西萊(Barzillai)從羅基琳下來,要送王過約旦河,就與王一同過了約旦河。
32巴西萊年紀老邁,已經八十歲了。王住在瑪哈念的時候,他就拿食物來供給王,他原是大富戶。
33王對巴西萊說:“你與我同去,我要在耶路撒冷那里養你的老。”
34巴西萊對王說:“我在世的年日還能有多少,使我與王同上耶路撒冷呢?
35仆人現在八十歲了,還能嘗出飲食的滋味,辨別美惡嗎?還能聽男女歌唱的聲音嗎?仆人何必累贅我主我王呢?
36仆人只要送王過約旦河,王何必賜我這樣的恩典呢?
37求你准我回去,好死在我本城,葬在我父母的墓旁。這里有王的仆人金罕,讓他同我主我王過去,可以隨意待他。”
38王說:“金罕可以與我同去,我必照你的心愿待他。你向我求什么,我都必為你成就。”
39于是眾民過約旦河,王也過去。王與巴西萊親咀,為他祝福。巴西萊就回本地去了。

現在這個老人家陪伴大衛過約但河。他拒絕大衛的好意,就是要在耶路撒冷那里養他的老,并且還將自己的仆人金罕獻給大衛,回耶路撒冷服侍大衛。大衛沒有忘記巴西萊在他患難的時候所給與的幫助,在王上二:7,他吩咐所羅門要厚待巴西萊:“你當恩待基列人巴西萊的眾子,使他們常與你同席吃飯,因為我躲避你哥哥押沙龍的時候,他們拿食物來迎接我。”

這三家人已經不能拿出証據,証明他們是亞倫的后裔。祭司之職必須由亞倫四個兒子之中的以利亞撒的子孫和以他瑪的子孫擔任。(其他兩個兒子拿答和亞比戶在父親之先死去,也沒有留下兒子 - 利十:1-7)(代上二十四:1-19)

省長是誰?應該是所羅巴伯。對于這三家人不能証明他們是以利亞撒的子孫或以他瑪的子孫,他的判決是:“(他們)不可吃至聖的物,直到有用烏陵(Urim)和土明(Thummim)決疑的祭司興起來。”烏陵(Urim)和土明(Thummim)又是什么?這是大祭司胸牌里的兩塊玉石。

出二十八:30 又要將烏陵和土明放在決斷的胸牌里。亞倫進到耶和華面前的時候,要帶在胸前,在耶和華面前常將以色列人的決斷牌帶在胸前。

利八:8 又給他帶上胸牌,把烏陵和土明放在胸牌內﹔

民二十七:21 他要站在祭司以利亞撒面前,以利亞撒要憑烏陵的判斷,在耶和華面前為他求問。他和以色列全會眾,都要遵以利亞撒的命出入。

申三十三:8 論利未說:“耶和華啊,你的土明和烏陵都在你的虔誠人那里。你在瑪撒曾試驗他,在米利巴水與他爭論。。。”

撒上二十八:6 掃羅求問耶和華,耶和華卻不借夢,或烏陵,或先知回答他。

一般學者認為這兩塊玉石是用來求問上帝的旨意。烏陵(Urim)代表不是,而土明(Thummim)代表是,透過這兩塊石的光暗來知道神的旨意﹔類似中國民間信仰里的 筊杯,一種尋求神靈指示的工具。實際怎樣用亦無從知道。


《尼希米記》第七章也有一份這樣的名單:

尼七:61-65  “61從特米拉(Telmelah)、特哈薩(Telharesha)、基綠(Cherub)、亞頓(Addon)、音麥(Immer)上來的,不能指明他們的宗族譜系是以色列人不是。62他們是第萊雅的子孫(The children of Delaiah)、多比雅的子孫(the children of Tobiah)、尼哥大的子孫(the children of Nekoda),共六百四十二名。63祭司中,哈巴雅的子孫(the children of Habaiah)、哈哥斯的子孫(the children of Koz)、巴西萊的子孫(the children of Barzillai),因為他們的先祖娶了基列人巴西萊(Barzillai the Gileadite)的女兒為妻,所以起名叫巴西萊。64這三家的人,在族譜之中尋查自己的譜系,卻尋不著,因此算為不潔,不准供祭司的職任。65省長對他們說:‘不可吃至聖的物,直到有用烏陵和土明決疑的祭司興起來。’”

KJV:61 And these were they which went up also from Telmelah, Telharesha, Cherub, Addon, and Immer: but they could not shew their father's house, nor their seed, whether they were of Israel. 62 The children of Delaiah, the children of Tobiah, the children of Nekoda, six hundred forty and two. 63 And of the priests: the children of Habaiah, the children of Koz, the children of Barzillai, which took one of the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite to wife, and was called after their name. 64 These sought their register among those that were reckoned by genealogy, but it was not found: therefore were they, as polluted, put from the priesthood. 65 And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and Thummim.


 

《以斯拉記》第二章

《尼希米記》第七章

           

經節

不明族譜的

人數

經節

不明族譜的

人數

           

60

第來雅的子孫(The children of Delaiah)、多比雅的子孫(the children of Tobiah)、尼哥大的子孫(the children of Nekoda)

652

62

第萊雅的子孫(The children of Delaiah)、多比雅的子孫(the children of Tobiah)、尼哥大的子孫(the children of Nekoda)

642

           
 

兩份名單的數字有差異

 


比較這兩份名單,屬于第一種“不能指明他們的宗族譜系是以色列人不是”,《以斯拉記》里有 652 人 ,《尼希米記》則有 642 人。


6。拉二:64 - 70  “64會眾共有四萬二千三百六十名。65此外,還有他們的仆婢七千三百三十七名,又有歌唱的男女二百名。66他們有馬(horses)七百三十六匹,騾子 (mules)二百四十五匹,67駱駝(camels)四百三十五只,驢(asses)六千七百二十匹。68有些族長到了耶路撒冷耶和華殿的地方,便為上帝的殿甘心獻上禮物,要重新建造。69他們量力捐入工程庫的金子六萬一千達利克 (darics,drams),銀子五千彌拿(minas,pound)并祭司的禮服一百件。70于是,祭司、利未人民中的一些人、歌唱的、守門的、尼提寧并以色列眾人,各住在自己的城里。”

《新譯本》:64全體會眾共有四萬二千三百六十人。65此外,還有他們的仆婢七千三百三十七人﹔又有男女歌唱者二百人。66他們有馬七百三十六匹,騾子二百四十五匹,67駱駝四百三十五匹和驢子六千七百二十頭。68當一些族長到達耶路撒冷耶和華殿的原址的時候,就為神的殿甘心獻上禮物,要把殿在原址重建起來。69他們按照自己的力量奉到工程庫里的,有金子五百公斤和銀子兩千八百公斤,以及祭司的禮服一百件。70于是祭司、利未人、歌唱者、守門的、作殿役的,和一部分人民住在城里﹔以色列眾人都住在自己的城里。

KJV:64 The whole congregation together was forty and two thousand three hundred and threescore, 65 Beside their servants and their maids, of whom there were seven thousand three hundred thirty and seven: and there were among them two hundred singing men and singing women. 66 Their horses were seven hundred thirty and six; their mules, two hundred forty and five; 67 Their camels, four hundred thirty and five; their asses, six thousand seven hundred and twenty. 68 And some of the chief of the fathers, when they came to the house of the LORD which is at Jerusalem, offered freely for the house of God to set it up in his place: 69 They gave after their ability unto the treasure of the work threescore and one thousand drams of gold, and five thousand pound of silver, and one hundred priests' garments. 70 So the priests, and the Levites, and some of the people, and the singers, and the porters, and the Nethinims, dwelt in their cities, and all Israel in their cities.

ESV:64 The whole assembly together was 42,360, 65 besides their male and female servants, of whom there were 7,337, and they had 200 male and female singers. 66 Their horses were 736, their mules were 245, 67 their camels were 435, and their donkeys were 6,720. 68 Some of the heads of families, when they came to the house of the Lord that is in Jerusalem, made freewill offerings for the house of God, to erect it on its site. 69 According to their ability they gave to the treasury of the work 61,000 darics of gold, 5,000 minas of silver, and 100 priests' garments. 70 Now the priests, the Levites, some of the people, the singers, the gatekeepers, and the temple servants lived in their towns, and all the rest of Israel in their towns.


《尼希米記》第七章的記載是:

尼七:66 - 73  “66會眾共有四萬二千三百六十名。67此外,還有他們的仆婢七千三百三十七名,又有歌唱的男女二百四十五名。68他們有馬七百三十六匹,騾子二百四十五匹,69駱駝四百三十五只,驢六千七百二十匹。70有些族長為工程捐助。省長捐入庫中的金子一千達利克,碗五十個,祭司的禮服五百三十件。71又有族長捐入工程庫的金子二萬達利克,銀子二千二百彌拿。72其余百姓所捐的金子二萬達利克,銀子二千彌拿,祭司的禮服六十七件。73于是,祭司、利未人、守門的、歌唱的、民中的一些人、尼提寧,并以色列眾人,各住在自己的城里。”

KJV:66 The whole congregation together was forty and two thousand three hundred and threescore, 67 Beside their manservants and their maidservants, of whom there were seven thousand three hundred thirty and seven: and they had two hundred forty and five singing men and singing women. 68 Their horses, seven hundred thirty and six: their mules, two hundred forty and five: 69 Their camels, four hundred thirty and five: six thousand seven hundred and twenty asses. 70 And some of the chief of the fathers gave unto the work. The Tirshatha gave to the treasure a thousand drams of gold, fifty basons, five hundred and thirty priests' garments. 71 And some of the chief of the fathers gave to the treasure of the work twenty thousand drams of gold, and two thousand and two hundred pounds of silver. 72 And that which the rest of the people gave was twenty thousand drams of gold, and two thousand pounds of silver, and threescore and seven priests' garments. 73 So the priests, and the Levites, and the porters, and the singers, and some of the people, and the Nethinims, and all Israel, dwelt in their cities; and when the seventh month came, the children of Israel were in their cities.


 

《以斯拉記》第二章

《尼希米記》第七章

           

經節

 

數字

經節

 

數字

           

64

會眾

42360
(1至63節的總人數是29818;其他的應該是婦人的數目)

66

會眾

42360
(5至65節的總人數是31089;其他的應該是婦人的數目)

           

65

仆婢

7337

67

仆婢

7337

           
 

歌唱的男女

200

 

歌唱的男女

345

           

66

馬(horses)

736 匹

68

736 匹

           
 

騾子(mules)

245 匹

 

騾子

245 匹

           

67

駱駝(camels)

435 只

 

駱駝

435 只

           
 

驢(asses)

6720 匹

 

6720 匹

           

69

金子

六萬一千達利克(darics,drams)

     
           
 

銀子

五千彌拿(minas,pound)

     
           
 

祭司的禮服

一百件

     
           
     

70

省長捐入庫中的金子一千達利克,碗五十個,祭司的禮服五百三十件

金子共 41000 達利克:
銀子共 4200 彌拿﹔
碗共 50 個﹔
祭司禮服 共 597 件

         
     

71

族長捐入工程庫的金子二萬達利克,銀子二千二百彌拿

         
     

72

其余百姓所捐的金子二萬達利克,銀子二千彌拿,祭司的禮服六十七件

金子 一達利克(darics)= 約重 8.4克

銀子 一彌拿(minas 或 siglos) = 約重 5.3 克

金子 一達利克(darics)= 20 銀子 siglos

《新譯本》把一公斤金子等同 122 達利克(darics)

一公斤銀子等同約 1.79 彌拿(minas)

 

金幣 一達利克(darics)

銀幣 一彌拿(siglos)


“于是,祭司、利未人民中的一些人、歌唱的、守門的、尼提寧并以色列眾人,各住在自己的城里。” --  被擄七十年后,猶太人終于回到自己的故鄉。他們一路走著,高唱著詩歌:

美夢成真

詩篇一百二十六:1 - 6

1當耶和華將那些被擄的帶回錫安的時候,我們好象做夢的人。
2我們滿口喜笑、滿舌歡呼的時候,外邦中就有人說:“耶和華為他們行了大事!”
3耶和華果然為我們行了大事,我們就歡喜。

4耶和華啊,求你使我們被擄的人歸回,好象南地的河水復流!
5流淚撒種的,必歡呼收割!
6那帶種流淚出去的,必要歡歡樂樂地帶禾捆回來!


信實守約和施慈愛的上帝沒有忘記他的子民﹔他答應讓他們“美夢成真”,這是他的恩典!外邦人認為不可能的事(Mission Impossible) ,現在不得不承認“耶和華為他們行了大事!”(耶三十二:17 “主耶和華啊,你曾用大能和伸出來的膀臂創造天地,在你沒有難成的事。”)當看到上帝在外邦人面前,向自己的子民仰臉,使他的臉光照他們(詩四:6,民六:25-26),蒙恩的人怎會不喜樂滿懷呢?

“于是,祭司、利未人民中的一些人、歌唱的、守門的、尼提寧并以色列眾人,各住在自己的城里。” -- 回歸的人數只有 42360 人,還有很多人留在被擄之地。難道蒙恩的人就各自回去自己的城里,住天花板的房屋,忙自己的事(該一:4),忘記了上帝當日激起波斯王塞魯士的心,下詔允許猶大人歸回耶路撒冷,是要他們重建聖殿嗎?當然不是。下一章我們看到他們在省長所羅巴伯和大祭司耶書亞的領導下,他們開始重建祭壇和聖殿根基。但最重要的問題是:

七十年后回家,看到田園荒蕪,荊棘叢生,且不問歸回的人(大部分是在聖殿事奉的祭司、利未人、歌唱的、守門的、殿役。。)有多少可以下田撒種,有誰敢擔保天會降甘露,地一定出土產呢?

所以,詩人蒙恩喜不自勝的時候,也同時向上帝祈求,求什么呢?

A。“4耶和華啊,求你使我們被擄的人歸回,好象南地的河水復流!”

《呂振中譯本》這樣翻譯:“4永恆主阿,恢復我們的故業哦,像南地的溪河復流一樣。”

詩人自己得救回來,他一方面求上帝“使我們被擄的人歸回”,意思是他沒有忘記在被擄之地還有其他同胞,他盼望他們也能盡早歸回故地,大家一同負起重建故國的重擔﹔另一方面他盼望看到另一次的復興,“好象南地的河水復流!”,這是另一次的 Mission Impossible!


B。“5流淚撒種的,必歡呼收割!”

《呂振中譯本》這樣翻譯:“5愿流淚撒種的、歡呼地收割。”

歸回是上帝的大能的作為﹔現在田園荒蕪,荊棘叢生,歸回的人要肩負起重建的工作,下田“流淚撒種”是絕對免不了。詩人的“愿”,表示他盼望上帝能賜福與他們,“天會降甘露,地一定出土產”(該一:10),使他們有丰收,歡呼地收割。


C。“6那帶種流淚出去的,必要歡歡樂樂地帶禾捆回來!”

《呂振中譯本》這樣翻譯:“6愿那帶著撒種的種子、哭著出去的、帶著禾捆、歡呼地回來。”

這是典型的詩歌文體的正對(synonymous)特色,第一、二句意義平行,既不加重,也不減輕。譬如,

我涂抹了你的過犯,像厚云消散﹔
我涂抹了你的罪惡,如薄云滅沒。(賽四十:22)

這里的第 5 和第 6 節就是典型的正對句子:

 5   流淚     撒種的,   必歡呼       收割!

 6   流淚出去的  那帶種, 必要歡歡樂樂地   帶禾捆回來! 


結果怎樣?

《哈該書》一章 2-11 節:

2萬軍之耶和華如此說:“這百姓說:‘建造耶和華殿的時候尚未來到。﹔”
3那時耶和華的話臨到先知哈該說:
4“這殿仍然荒涼,你們自己還住天花板的房屋嗎?
5現在萬軍之耶和華如此說:你們要省察自己的行為。
6你們撒的種多,收的卻少﹔你們吃,卻不得飽﹔喝,卻不得足﹔穿衣服,卻不得暖﹔得工錢的,將工錢裝在破漏的囊中。”
7萬軍之耶和華如此說:“你們要省察自己的行為。
8你們要上山取木料建造這殿,我就因此喜樂,且得榮耀。”這是耶和華說的。
9“你們盼望多得,所得的卻少﹔你們收到家中,我就吹去。這是為什么呢?因為我的殿荒涼,你們各人卻顧自己的房屋。”這是萬軍之耶和華說的。
10“所以為你們的緣故,天就不降甘露,地也不出土產。
11我命干旱臨到地土、山岡、五谷、新酒和油,并地上的出產、人民、牲畜,以及人手一切勞碌得來的。”

祈求是一回事,有沒有行動是另一回事。

在上帝即使沒有難成的事,但如果我們只是祈求,沒有相應的行動,Mission Impossible 永遠是 Mission Impossible!

我們下一課再談。

 

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