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《以斯拉記》 - 被擄、歸回、重建(一)

第十九課 - 建殿工程受攔阻(五)

經文:拉五:1 - 17

主旨:

建殿工程停工約十五年后,被擄歸回的猶太人有上帝的先知在那里幫助,再次起來動手建造耶路撒冷上帝的殿。當時河西的總督達乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai)上本奏告大利烏王,請察巴比倫王的府庫,看塞魯士王是否有降旨,允准他們建造,并求王給予指示。

1。拉五:1 - 17  “1那時,先知哈該(Haggai)和易多(Iddo)的孫子撒迦利亞(Zechariah)奉以色列上帝的名,向猶大(Judah)和耶路撒冷(Jerusalem)的猶大人說勸勉的話。2于是,撒拉鐵的兒子所羅巴伯(Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel)和約薩達的兒子耶書亞(Jeshua the son of Jozadak),都起來動手建造耶路撒冷上帝的殿,有上帝的先知在那里幫助他們。3當時,河西的總督達乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai),并他們的同黨來問說:‘誰降旨讓你們建造這殿,修成這牆呢?’4我們便告訴他們,建造這殿的人叫什么名字。5上帝的眼目看顧猶大的長老,以致總督等沒有叫他們停工,直到這事奏告大利烏(Darius),得著他的回諭。6河西的總督達乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai),并他們的同黨,就是住河西的亞法薩迦人(Apharsachites),上本奏告大利烏王(Darius the king 或大流士一世 Darius I ,公元前522-前486年)。7本上寫著說:‘愿大利烏王諸事平安!8王該知道,我們往猶大省(Judea)去,到了至大神的殿,這殿是用大石建造的,梁木插入牆內,工作甚速,他們手下亨通。9我們就問那些長老說:「誰降旨讓你們建造這殿、修成這牆呢?」10又問他們的名字,要記錄他們首領的名字,奏告于王。11他們回答說:「我們是天地之上帝的仆人,重建前多年所建造的殿,就是以色列的一位大君王建造修成的。12只因我們列祖惹天上的上帝發怒,上帝把他們交在迦勒底人巴比倫王尼布甲尼撒(Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean,605-562BC)的手中,他就拆毀這殿,又將百姓擄到巴比倫。13然而巴比倫王塞魯士(Cyrus the king of Babylon 或古列 Cyrus II,公元前559年-前529年)元年,他降旨允准建造上帝的這殿。14上帝殿中的金銀、器皿,就是尼布甲尼撒從耶路撒冷的殿中掠去帶到巴比倫廟里的,塞魯士王從巴比倫廟里取出來,交給派為省長的,名叫設巴薩(Sheshbazzar),15對他說:可以將這些器皿帶去,放在耶路撒冷的殿中,在原處建造上帝的殿。16于是,這設巴薩來建立耶路撒冷上帝殿的根基。這殿從那時直到如今,尚未造成。」17現在王若以為美,請察巴比倫王的府庫,看塞魯士王(Cyrus the king)降旨,允准在耶路撒冷建造上帝的殿沒有。王的心意如何,請降旨曉諭我們。’”

《新譯本》:1那時,哈該先知和易多的兒子撒迦利亞先知奉以色列上帝的名,向在猶大地和耶路撒冷的猶大人傳講信息。2于是,撒拉鐵的兒子所羅巴伯和約薩達的兒子耶書亞都起來,開始重建在耶路撒冷的上帝的殿,上帝的先知們和他們在一起,幫助他們。3當時,河西那邊的總督達乃和示他.波斯乃,以及他們的同僚來到他們那里,這樣問他們說:“誰下令叫你們重建這殿,完成這工程呢?”4他們又這樣問:“負責這建筑工程的人叫甚么名字?”5但是上帝的眼目看顧猶大人的長老,以致總督等人沒有阻止他們建造﹔直到這事奏告大利烏王,得著有關這事的回諭為止。6這就是河西那邊的省長達乃和示他.波斯乃,以及他們的同僚,就是在河西那邊的亞法薩迦人,呈給大利烏王的奏文副本。7他們在呈給王的奏文中這樣寫:“愿大利烏王萬事平安。8奏知大王:我們去過這猶大省,到了偉大神的殿,見殿正用光滑石塊修建,梁木插入牆內﹔這工程在他們手里進行得審慎而迅速。9于是,我們就這樣問那些長老,對他們說:‘誰下令叫你們重建這殿,完成這工程呢?’10為了奏知大王,就問他們的名字,記錄他們首領的名。11他們這樣答覆我們,說:‘我們是天地之上帝的仆人,正在重建這多年以前已經建好的殿,就是一位以色列偉大的君王所建成的。12但因為我們的祖先激怒了天上的上帝,上帝就把他們交在迦勒底人巴比倫王尼布甲尼撒(Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean)的手中﹔尼布甲尼撒就拆毀這殿,把人民擄到巴比倫去。13然而在巴比倫王古列元年(Cyrus the king of Babylon),古列王下令重建這上帝的殿。14至于從前尼布甲尼撒從耶路撒冷的殿里掠奪,帶到巴比倫廟里的神殿中的金銀器皿,古列王也從巴比倫的廟中拿出來,把它們交給一位名叫設巴薩(Sheshbazzar)的人,委任他為總督。15又吩咐他說:把這些器皿帶去,存放在耶路撒冷的殿中﹔使上帝的殿在原來的地方重建起來。16于是,這設巴薩回來,奠立了在耶路撒冷上帝的殿的根基﹔從那時起,到現在一直在建造,還沒有完成。’17現在王若是以為好,就請查考王在巴比倫的庫房,看看那里有沒有古列王(Cyrus the king)下令,重建這在耶路撒冷上帝的殿的諭旨,并請指示我們王對這事的旨意。”

KJV:1 Then the prophets, Haggai the prophet, and Zechariah the son of Iddo, prophesied unto the Jews that were in Judah and Jerusalem in the name of the God of Israel, even unto them. 2 Then rose up Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and began to build the house of God which is at Jerusalem: and with them were the prophets of God helping them. 3 At the same time came to them Tatnai, governor on this side the river, and Shethar-boznai, and their companions, and said thus unto them, Who hath commanded you to build this house, and to make up this wall? 4 Then said we unto them after this manner, What are the names of the men that make this building? 5 But the eye of their God was upon the elders of the Jews, that they could not cause them to cease, till the matter came to Darius: and then they returned answer by letter concerning this matter.  6 The copy of the letter that Tatnai, governor on this side the river, and Shethar-boznai, and his companions the Apharsachites, which were on this side the river, sent unto Darius the king: 7 They sent a letter unto him, wherein was written thus; Unto Darius the king, all peace. 8 Be it known unto the king, that we went into the province of Judea, to the house of the great God, which is builded with great stones, and timber is laid in the walls, and this work goeth fast on, and prospereth in their hands. 9 Then asked we those elders, and said unto them thus, Who commanded you to build this house, and to make up these walls? 10 We asked their names also, to certify thee, that we might write the names of the men that were the chief of them. 11 And thus they returned us answer, saying, We are the servants of the God of heaven and earth, and build the house that was builded these many years ago, which a great king of Israel builded and set up. 12 But after that our fathers had provoked the God of heaven unto wrath, he gave them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean, who destroyed this house, and carried the people away into Babylon. 13 But in the first year of Cyrus the king of Babylon the same king Cyrus made a decree to build this house of God. 14 And the vessels also of gold and silver of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took out of the temple that was in Jerusalem, and brought them into the temple of Babylon, those did Cyrus the king take out of the temple of Babylon, and they were delivered unto one, whose name was Sheshbazzar, whom he had made governor; 15 And said unto him, Take these vessels, go, carry them into the temple that is in Jerusalem, and let the house of God be builded in his place. 16 Then came the same Sheshbazzar, and laid the foundation of the house of God which is in Jerusalem: and since that time even until now hath it been in building, and yet it is not finished. 17 Now therefore, if it seem good to the king, let there be search made in the king's treasure house, which is there at Babylon, whether it be so, that a decree was made of Cyrus the king to build this house of God at Jerusalem, and let the king send his pleasure to us concerning this matter.

ESV:1 Now the prophets, Haggai and Zechariah the son of Iddo, prophesied to the Jews who were in Judah and Jerusalem, in the name of the God of Israel who was over them. 2 Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel and Jeshua the son of Jozadak arose and began to rebuild the house of God that is in Jerusalem, and the prophets of God were with them, supporting them. 3 At the same time Tattenai the governor of the province Beyond the River and Shethar-bozenai and their associates came to them and spoke to them thus: “Who gave you a decree to build this house and to finish this structure?” 4 They also asked them this: “What are the names of the men who are building this building?” 5 But the eye of their God was on the elders of the Jews, and they did not stop them until the report should reach Darius and then an answer be returned by letter concerning it. 6 This is a copy of the letter that Tattenai the governor of the province Beyond the River and Shethar-bozenai and his associates, the governors who were in the province Beyond the River, sent to Darius the king. 7 They sent him a report, in which was written as follows: “To Darius the king, all peace. 8 Be it known to the king that we went to the province of Judah, to the house of the great God. It is being built with huge stones, and timber is laid in the walls. This work goes on diligently and prospers in their hands. 9 Then we asked those elders and spoke to them thus: ‘Who gave you a decree to build this house and to finish this structure?’ 10 We also asked them their names, for your information, that we might write down the names of their leaders.  11 And this was their reply to us: ‘We are the servants of the God of heaven and earth, and we are rebuilding the house that was built many years ago, which a great king of Israel built and finished. 12 But because our fathers had angered the God of heaven, he gave them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the Chaldean, who destroyed this house and carried away the people to Babylonia. 13 However, in the first year of Cyrus king of Babylon, Cyrus the king made a decree that this house of God should be rebuilt. 14 And the gold and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the temple that was in Jerusalem and brought into the temple of Babylon, these Cyrus the king took out of the temple of Babylon, and they were delivered to one whose name was Sheshbazzar, whom he had made governor; 15 and he said to him, “Take these vessels, go and put them in the temple that is in Jerusalem, and let the house of God be rebuilt on its site.” 16 Then this Sheshbazzar came and laid the foundations of the house of God that is in Jerusalem, and from that time until now it has been in building, and it is not yet finished.’ 17 Therefore, if it seems good to the king, let search be made in the royal archives there in Babylon, to see whether a decree was issued by Cyrus the king for the rebuilding of this house of God in Jerusalem. And let the king send us his pleasure in this matter.”


在查考拉五:1-2節的時候,因為談到兩個先知(哈該和撒迦利亞)怎樣鼓勵和安慰被擄歸回的猶太人重建聖殿,我已經用了三課(第十六,十七和十八課)拉拉扯扯地談到這兩個人的先知書,以及“舊約/兩約之間的彌賽亞國觀念,末世以色列國的復興和基督教的末世觀”。現在我要和大家回到正題:

聖殿的根基是在歸回后第二年二月(538/537BC),由所羅巴伯/耶書亞動工興建(拉三:8)﹔根基立定(拉三:11)后,當他們要繼續建殿工程的時候,魔鬼就激動“猶大和便雅憫的敵人”,使他們的手發軟,擾亂他們“于是,在耶路撒冷上帝殿的工程就停止了,直停到波斯王大利烏第二年。(Darius I or Darius the Great,或大利烏一世,522BC-486BC))”(拉四:24),換句話說,建殿工程停工了15/16年(538/537BC-522/521BC )(拉四:24)。


經過了兩位先知的鼓勵,他們“都起來(再次)動手建造耶路撒冷上帝的殿”(拉五:2)結果怎樣?

“3當時,河西的總督(governor)達乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai),并他們的同黨來問說:‘誰降旨讓你們建造這殿,修成這牆呢?’4我們便告訴他們,建造這殿的人叫什么名字。5上帝的眼目看顧猶大的長老,以致總督等沒有叫他們停工,直到這事奏告大利烏(Darius),得著他的回諭。6河西的總督達乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai),并他們的同黨,就是住河西的亞法薩迦人(Apharsachites),上本奏告大利烏王(Darius the king 或大流士一世 Darius I ,公元前522-前486年)。。。”

誰看到猶太人再動手建殿呢?是不是十五年前的同一班人呢?在拉四:1 只說:“猶大和便雅憫的敵人,聽說被擄歸回的人為耶和華以色列的上帝建造殿宇。。”所以我們不知道他們是誰。在拉四:7-10 告訴我們上本控告猶太人的是省長利宏(Rehum the chancellor)、書記伸帥(Shimshai the scribe)和他們的同黨,這批人是屬于亞達薛西王(Artaxerxes 465-425BC)在位時候的人,不是大利烏王時代的人。 根據歷史學家(也是基督教護教學者) Edwin M Yamauchi,Professor Emeritus of History at Miami University 的著作《Persia and the Bible》(Baker Books 1996 年),猶大(Judah)是納入波斯帝國河西其中的一省,Trans-Euphrates,意思是 across the river,亞蘭文(Aramaic,拉四:8-六:18 和七:12-26是以亞蘭文書寫,書卷其余的部分是希伯來文)是 abar-naharā

當時治理巴比倫和 Trans-Euphrates 的 Satrap(總督/省長) 是 Ushtannu ,所以達乃(Tatnai)應該是比 Satrap 低一級的官員,Pahat or Governor subordinate to the Satrap﹔而示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai)則有波斯官銜 patifrasa or frasaka (英文 inquisitor or investigator 檢察官)。(請參考第七課有關波斯行省和官銜的解釋)

他們兩人和其他同黨來到所羅巴伯和耶書亞那里,問他們“誰降旨讓你們建造這殿,修成這牆呢?”。這里的 to build this house, and to make up this wall (NIV to rebuild this temple and restore this structure) ,“wall”的亞蘭文 ‘uššarnā 指的是材料(material)和設備(equipment),所以當時重建聖殿的工作一方面在進行中,另一方面也在收集 建筑的材料。

“我們便告訴他們,建造這殿的人叫什么名字。上帝的眼目看顧猶大的長老,以致總督等沒有叫他們停工,直到這事奏告大利烏(Darius),得著他的回諭。” --  十五年前猶大和便雅憫的敵人看到被擄的猶太人重建聖殿的時候,他們也來到猶太人的面前,說要參與一份:“請容我們與你們一同建造,因為我們尋求你們的神,與你們一樣。自從亞述王以撒哈頓帶我們上這地以來,我們常祭祀神。”(拉四:2)當時的所羅巴伯和族長回復,“我們建造上帝的殿與你們無干,我們自己為耶和華以色列的上帝協力建造,是照波斯王塞魯士所吩咐的。”(拉四:3)接著我們就看見“那地的民就在猶大人建造的時候,使他們的手發軟,擾亂他們。”現在十五年后大不相同了,被擄歸回的猶太人得到先知哈該和撒迦利亞的鼓勵和幫助,他們重新得力, 不輕易因受到威脅就放棄。還有,他們的敵人與以前不同,河西的總督(governor)達乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai)沒有禁止他們停工,表示官員們不認為這是造反的行動,他們只是上本奏告大流士一世(或大利烏王),等候王的指示。聖經說:“上帝的眼目看顧猶大的長老,以致總督等沒有叫他們停工,直到這事奏告大利烏(Darius),得著他的回諭。”

順便一提,第五章 2節是《以斯拉記》最后一次提到所羅巴伯的名字。


“6河西的總督達乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai),并他們的同黨,就是住河西的亞法薩迦人(Apharsachites),上本奏告大利烏王(Darius the king 或大流士一世 Darius I ,公元前522-前486年)。7本上寫著說:‘愿大利烏王諸事平安!8王該知道,我們往猶大省(Judea)去,到了至大神的殿,這殿是用大石建造的,梁木插入牆內,工作甚速,他們手下亨通。9我們就問那些長老說:「誰降旨讓你們建造這殿、修成這牆呢?」10又問他們的名字,要記錄他們首領的名字,奏告于王。11他們回答說:「我們是天地之上帝的仆人,重建前多年所建造的殿,就是以色列的一位大君王建造修成的。12只因我們列祖惹天上的上帝發怒,上帝把他們交在迦勒底人巴比倫王尼布甲尼撒(Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean,605-562BC)的手中,他就拆毀這殿,又將百姓擄到巴比倫。13然而巴比倫王塞魯士(Cyrus the king of Babylon 或古列 Cyrus II,公元前559年-前529年)元年,他降旨允准建造上帝的這殿。14上帝殿中的金銀、器皿,就是尼布甲尼撒從耶路撒冷的殿中掠去帶到巴比倫廟里的,塞魯士王從巴比倫廟里取出來,交給派為省長的,名叫設巴薩(Sheshbazzar),15對他說:可以將這些器皿帶去,放在耶路撒冷的殿中,在原處建造上帝的殿。16于是,這設巴薩來建立耶路撒冷上帝殿的根基。這殿從那時直到如今,尚未造成。」17現在王若以為美,請察巴比倫王的府庫,看塞魯士王(Cyrus the king)降旨,允准在耶路撒冷建造上帝的殿沒有。王的心意如何,請降旨曉諭我們。’”

在這篇奏本里有几個波斯外來語(Persian loan-word)如 6節的“亞法薩迦人”,亞蘭文 aparsekāyē ’(NIV the officials of Trans-Euphrates 河西的亞法薩迦人)是波斯文 frasaka “investigator”(檢察官)﹔8 節的“甚速”(NIV diligence),亞蘭文 ‘āsparnā ’是波斯文 ‘asprnā (exactly)﹔17節的“府庫”(NIV royal archives),亞蘭文 ginzayyā ’是波斯文 ganza(treasury)。這樣的用法是不足為奇的,因為河西的總督達乃(Tatnai)和他的官員都是波斯人。

與拉四:8-16 省長利宏、書記伸帥上奏亞達薛西王的奏本相比,不用我說大家也看得出兩者的不同:拉四:12-16說:“王該知道,從王那里上到我們這里的猶大人,已經到耶路撒冷重建這反叛惡劣的城,筑立根基,建造城牆。如今王該知道,他們若建造這城,城牆完畢,就不再與王進貢、交課、納稅,終久王必受虧損。我們既食御鹽,不忍見王吃虧,因此奏告于王。請王考察先王的實錄,必在其上查知這城是反叛的城,與列王和各省有害。自古以來,其中常有悖逆的事,因此這城曾被拆毀。我們謹奏王知,這城若再建造,城牆完畢,河西之地王就無分了。”我在第十五課說這個奏本,

。。雖然字數很少,但用的卻是“攻心之朮”- 哪一個王聽說自己管轄下的地方和臣民要反叛,不再進貢、交課和納稅,會置之不理的?若是如此,不是給別的地方和臣民立了一個榜樣,依樣畫葫蘆嗎?所以,“敵人”的一句“河西之地王就無分了”,勝過長篇大論的奏本。

現在河西的總督達乃(Tatnai)的奏本完全不同,他沒有用這種煽情的詞句, 只是准確地指出事件的各種時間要素,把事件的發展清楚地向王陳述,求王給予指示。這個奏本完全符合今天報道重要新聞事件的基本要求:

1。愿大利烏王諸事平安!

2。王該知道,我們往猶大省(Judea)去,到了至大神的殿,這殿是用大石建造的,梁木插入牆內,工作甚速,他們手下亨通。

3。我們就問那些長老說:“誰降旨讓你們建造這殿、修成這牆呢?”又問他們的名字,要記錄他們首領的名字,奏告于王。

4。他們回答說:“我們是天地之上帝的仆人,重建前多年所建造的殿,就是以色列的一位大君王建造修成的。只因我們列祖惹天上的上帝發怒,上帝把他們交在迦勒底人巴比倫王尼布甲尼撒(Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean,605-562BC)的手中,他就拆毀這殿,又將百姓擄到巴比倫。然而巴比倫王塞魯士(Cyrus the king of Babylon 或古列 Cyrus II,公元前559年-前529年)元年,他降旨允准建造上帝的這殿。上帝殿中的金銀、器皿,就是尼布甲尼撒從耶路撒冷的殿中掠去帶到巴比倫廟里的,塞魯士王從巴比倫廟里取出來,交給派為省長的,名叫設巴薩(Sheshbazzar),對他說:可以將這些器皿帶去,放在耶路撒冷的殿中,在原處建造上帝的殿。于是,這設巴薩來建立耶路撒冷上帝殿的根基。這殿從那時直到如今,尚未造成。”

5。現在王若以為美,請察巴比倫王的府庫,看塞魯士王(Cyrus the king)降旨,允准在耶路撒冷建造上帝的殿沒有。

6。王的心意如何,請降旨曉諭我們。


這個奏本大概是在 520BC 呈上給大利烏王(Darius I or Darius the Great,或大流士一世,522BC-486BC),因為拉四:24 說工程直停到波斯王大利烏第二年。

大利烏王看到這個奏本后會怎樣回應,我們下一課再談。


默想:

在1879年,考古學家在伊拉克地區(聖經中的巴比倫),發現了長僅九英寸的塞魯士圓柱體。上面記載了波斯王塞魯士在2500年前,允許一群人回到家鄉,重建他們的聖殿。

 

尊重權柄


“現在王若以為美,請察巴比倫王的府庫,看塞魯士王降旨,允准……沒有。”(拉五:17)


在公元前六世紀末,被擄歸回的以色列民遭到當時的掌權者質疑。當時,猶太人渴望重建在公元前586年被巴比倫王國摧毀的聖殿,但轄區的總督卻不太確定是否可行,因此他將此事上本奏告大利烏王(拉五:6-17節)。

總督在奏本內寫道,他發現猶太人正在建造聖殿,因此向國王請示猶太人是否曾得到允許。在奏文中也提到猶太人恭敬地回復,表明他們確實曾得到先王塞魯士王的允准。當大利烏王查証此事屬實:塞魯士王的確曾下旨允許他們建殿。所以大利烏王不但允准這事,而且還自王庫撥出經費(見6章1-12節)。猶太人完成聖殿的重建之后,他們都“歡歡喜喜地”慶祝,因為他們知道上帝使“王的心轉向他們,堅固他們的手,做以色列上帝殿的工程”(拉六:22)。

當我們面對問題需要解決的時候,應該以恭敬的態度呈明實情,相信上帝掌管萬事,并為他的帶領獻上感恩,這便是尊崇上帝的名。

主啊!幫助我們以恭敬的態度面對各種情況,

我們需要你的智慧。

愿我們永遠尊崇、信靠、贊美你!

尊重權柄使上帝得榮耀。

(取自《靈命日糧》2016年3月7日,作者:白德夫)


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