ag00087_.gif (341 bytes)返回課程綱要

《尼希米記》 - 被擄、歸回、重建(二)

第三課 - 耶路撒冷的城牆

經文:尼三章和十二章

主旨:

從考古學資料認識尼希米時代的耶路撒冷城牆。(主要參考資料:“Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah”- Leen & Kathleen Ritmeyer 2014)

1。 《以斯拉記》記述的,在硬體方面是聖殿的重建﹔在軟體方面是重建猶太人的信仰生活,特別是在一次“肅清行動”中,要那些娶外邦女子的以色列民和祭司并利未人,“休這一切的妻,離絕她們所生的。”(拉十:3)

《尼希米記》記述的,在硬體方面是耶路撒冷城牆的修建﹔在軟體方面也是重建猶太人的信仰生活,包括恢復古代節期 - 住棚節,嚴格遵守安息日為聖日,重新確定上帝與以色列所立的約,處理一些社會不公的問題,和再次對付那些行可憎之事 - 娶外邦女子為妻的猶大人。

尼希米以第一人稱敘述整個修建城牆的工程。雖然只花費了五十二天就完工,但整個過程面對內部和外部的反對 。從尼希米怎樣克服一一的難題,讓我們看到他是一個敬畏和全然信靠上帝,使命必達,并且凡事以身作則的領袖。

反觀《以斯拉記》的重建聖殿過程,我們看到因外面敵人(特別是撒馬利亞人)的阻擾 - 賄買謀士,要敗壞他們的謀算 - 猶太人便立刻手軟,建殿工程停工了約 15/16年。后來因有先知哈該和撒迦利亞的勸勉,還有大利烏王(Darius I 522BC-486BC)的尋獲原先的詔令,他們才被允准重新開工(約520BC),在經過約三年半至四年的時間,在大利烏王第六年(515BC),這殿才修成。除了重建聖殿,按拉四:6-23 的記載,聖殿重建后,敵人也在波斯王亞哈隨魯(薛西一世 Xerxes I ,486BC-465BC)和亞達薛西(Artaxerxes I,465BC-425BC)在位的時候,分別上本控告他們。控告什么呢?說他們修建城牆(拉四:12,13,21)。這是發生在尼希米回歸耶路撒冷,修筑城牆之前(458BC)。因亞達薛西王下詔(在位早期)命他們停工,所以我們才看到尼一:1-3 說:“亞達薛西王二十年(444BC)基斯流月,我在書珊城的宮中。那時,有我一個弟兄哈拿尼,同著几個人從猶大來。我問他們那些被擄歸回剩下逃脫的猶大人和耶路撒冷的光景。他們對我說:‘那些被擄歸回剩下的人在猶大省遭大難,受凌辱﹔并且耶路撒冷的城牆拆毀,城門被火焚燒。’”

我究竟要說什么呢?《以斯拉記》記載的重建聖殿的整個工程,我們看不到所羅巴伯和祭司耶書亞所扮演的身先士卒,使命必達的角色。當他們遇到敵人的攔阻,聖經只是輕描淡寫說:“猶大和便雅憫的敵人,聽說被擄歸回的人為耶和華以色列的上帝建造殿宇,就去見所羅巴伯和以色列的族長,對他們說:‘請容我們與你們一同建造,因為我們尋求你們的上帝,與你們一樣。自從亞述王以撒哈頓帶我們上這地以來,我們常祭祀神。’但所羅巴伯、耶書亞和其余以色列的族長對他們說:‘我們建造上帝的殿與你們無干,我們自己為耶和華以色列的上帝協力建造,是照波斯王塞魯士所吩咐的。’”(拉四:1-3)它沒有像《尼希米記》以第一人稱記述的詳細,有可能是因為作者以斯拉是集合了許多波斯宮廷的文件,如詔書(拉一:2-4,四:17-22)、與地方上的來往信件(拉四:11-16)編輯前面的六章。

所以這次的查考《尼希米記》,我們要從省長尼希米的身上學習怎樣做一個合神心意的屬靈領袖。


2。在還沒有正式查考之前,我們先要透過考古學家發掘的許多資料,對尼希米時代的耶路撒冷城牆有一些認識。《尼希米記》有兩章記載了當時城牆的一些資料,給考古學家們的挖掘提供寶貴的指引。

尼三:1-32

1那時,大祭司以利亞實(Eliashib the high priest)和他的弟兄眾祭司起來建立羊門(sheep gate),分別為聖,安立門扇,又筑城牆到哈米亞樓(the tower of Meah),直到哈楠業樓(the tower of Hananeel),分別為聖。
2其次是耶利哥人建造。其次是音利的兒子撒刻建造。
3哈西拿的子孫建立魚門(fish gate),架橫梁、安門扇和閂鎖。
4其次是哈哥斯的孫子、烏利亞的兒子米利末修造。其次是米示薩別的孫子、比利迦的兒子米書蘭修造。其次是巴拿的兒子撒督修造。
5其次是提哥亞人修造。但是他們的貴i不用肩擔他們主的工作(注:"肩"原文作"頸項")。
6巴西亞的兒子耶何耶大與比所玳的兒子米書蘭修造古門(old gate),架橫梁、安門扇和閂鎖。
7其次是基遍人米拉提,米倫人雅頓與基遍人,并屬河西總督所管的米斯巴人修造。
8其次是銀匠哈海雅的兒子烏薛修造。其次是做香的哈拿尼雅修造。這些人修堅耶路撒冷,直到寬牆(broad wall)。
9其次是管理耶路撒冷一半、戶珥的兒子利法雅修造。
10其次是哈路抹的兒子耶大雅,對著自己的房屋修造。其次是哈沙尼的兒子哈突修造。
11哈琳的兒子瑪基雅和巴哈摩押的兒子哈述修造一段,并修造爐樓(the tower of the furnaces)。
12其次是管理耶路撒冷那一半、哈羅黑的兒子沙龍和他的女兒們修造。
13哈嫩和撒挪亞的居民修造谷門(The valley gate),立門、安門扇和閂鎖,又建筑城牆一千肘,直到糞廠門(the dung gate)。
14管理伯哈基琳、利甲的兒子瑪基雅修造糞廠門(the dung gate),立門、安門扇和閂鎖。
15管理米斯巴、各荷西的兒子沙侖修造泉門(the gate of the fountain),立門、蓋門頂、安門扇和閂鎖,又修造靠近王園西羅亞池的牆垣 (the wall of the pool of Siloah by the king's garden),直到那從大衛城下來的台階(unto the stairs that go down from the city of David)。
16其次是管理伯夙一半、押卜的兒子尼希米修造,直到大衛墳地(the sepulchres of David)的對面,又到挖成的池子(the pool that was made),并勇士的房屋。
17其次是利未人巴尼的兒子利宏修造。其次是管理基伊拉一半、哈沙比雅為他所管的本境修造。
18其次是利未人弟兄中管理基伊拉那一半、希拿達的兒子巴瓦伊修造。
19其次是管理米斯巴、耶書亞的兒子以謝修造一段,對著武庫的上坡城牆轉彎之處(the armoury at the turning of the wall)。
20其次是薩拜的兒子巴錄竭力修造一段,從城牆轉彎,直到大祭司以利亞實的府門(from the turning of the wall unto the door of the house of Eliashib the high priest)。
21其次是哈哥斯的孫子、烏利亞的兒子米利末修造一段,從以利亞實的府門,直到以利亞實府的盡頭。
22其次是住平原的祭司修造。
23其次是便雅憫與哈述對著自己的房屋修造。其次是亞難尼的孫子、瑪西雅的兒子亞撒利雅在靠近自己的房屋修造。
24其次是希拿達的兒子賓內修造一段,從亞撒利雅的房屋直到城牆轉彎,又到城角(unto the turning of the wall, even unto the corner)。
25烏賽的兒子巴拉修造對著城牆的轉彎(the turning of the wall)和王上宮凸出來的城樓(the tower which lieth out from the king's high house),靠近護衛院(the court of the prison)的那一段。其次是巴錄的兒子酗j雅修造。
26(尼提寧住在俄斐勒 Ophel,直到朝東水門的對面和凸出來的城樓 unto the place over against the water gate toward the east, and the tower that lieth out。)
27其次是提哥亞人又修一段,對著那凸出來的大樓(the great tower that lieth out),直到俄斐勒的牆(the wall of Ophel)。
28從馬門(the horse gate)往上,眾祭司各對自己的房屋修造。
29其次是音麥的兒子撒督對著自己的房屋修造。其次是守東門(east gate)示迦尼的兒子示瑪雅修造。
30其次是示利米雅的兒子哈拿尼雅和薩拉的第六子哈嫩又修一段。其次是比利迦的兒子米書蘭對著自己的房屋修造。
31其次是銀匠瑪基雅修造到尼提寧和商人的房屋,對著哈米弗甲門(the gate Miphkad),直到城的角樓(the going up of the corner)。
32銀匠與商人在城的角樓和羊門(sheep gate)中間修造。

KJV:

1 Then Eliashib the high priest rose up with his brethren the priests, and they builded the sheep gate; they sanctified it, and set up the doors of it; even unto the tower of Meah they sanctified it, unto the tower of Hananeel.
2 And next unto him builded the men of Jericho. And next to them builded Zaccur the son of Imri.
3 But the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build, who also laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
4 And next unto them repaired Meremoth the son of Urijah, the son of Koz. And next unto them repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah, the son of Meshezabeel. And next unto them repaired Zadok the son of Baana.
5 And next unto them the Tekoites repaired; but their nobles put not their necks to the work of their Lord.
6 Moreover the old gate repaired Jehoiada the son of Paseah, and Meshullam the son of Besodeiah; they laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, and the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
7 And next unto them repaired Melatiah the Gibeonite, and Jadon the Meronothite, the men of Gibeon, and of Mizpah, unto the throne of the governor on this side the river.
8 Next unto him repaired Uzziel the son of Harhaiah, of the goldsmiths. Next unto him also repaired Hananiah the son of one of the apothecaries, and they fortified Jerusalem unto the broad wall.
9 And next unto them repaired Rephaiah the son of Hur, the ruler of the half part of Jerusalem.
10 And next unto them repaired Jedaiah the son of Harumaph, even over against his house. And next unto him repaired Hattush the son of Hashabniah.
11 Malchijah the son of Harim, and Hashub the son of Pahath-moab, repaired the other piece, and the tower of the furnaces.
12 And next unto him repaired Shallum the son of Halohesh, the ruler of the half part of Jerusalem, he and his daughters.
13 The valley gate repaired Hanun, and the inhabitants of Zanoah; they built it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and a thousand cubits on the wall unto the dung gate.
14 But the dung gate repaired Malchiah the son of Rechab, the ruler of part of Beth-haccerem; he build it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
15 But the gate of the fountain repaired Shallun the son of Col-hozeh, the ruler of part of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and the wall of the pool of Siloah by the king's garden, and unto the stairs that go down from the city of David.
16 After him repaired Nehemiah the son of Azbuk, the ruler of the half part of Beth-zur, unto the place over against the sepulchres of David, and to the pool that was made, and unto the house of the mighty.
17 After him repaired the Levites, Rehum the son of Bani. Next unto him repaired Hashabiah, the ruler of the half part of Keilah, in his part.
18 After him repaired their brethren, Bavai the son of Henadad, the ruler of the half part of Keilah.
19 And next to him repaired Ezer the son of Jeshua, the ruler of Mizpah, another piece over against the going up to the armoury at the turning of the wall.
20 After him Baruch the son of Zabbai earnestly repaired the other piece, from the turning of the wall unto the door of the house of Eliashib the high priest.
21 After him repaired Meremoth the son of Urijah the son of Koz another piece, from the door of the house of Eliashib even to the end of the house of Eliashib.
22 And after him repaired the priests, the men of the plain.
23 After him repaired Benjamin and Hashub over against their house. After him repaired Azariah the son of Maaseiah the son of Ananiah by his house.
24 After him repaired Binnui the son of Henadad another piece, from the house of Azariah unto the turning of the wall, even unto the corner.
25 Palal the son of Uzai, over against the turning of the wall, and the tower which lieth out from the king's high house, that was by the court of the prison. After him Pedaiah the son of Parosh.
26 Moreover the Nethinims dwelt in Ophel, unto the place over against the water gate toward the east, and the tower that lieth out.
27 After them the Tekoites repaired another piece, over against the great tower that lieth out, even unto the wall of Ophel.
28 From above the horse gate repaired the priests, every one over against his house.
29 After them repaired Zadok the son of Immer over against his house. After him repaired also Shemaiah the son of Shechaniah, the keeper of the east gate.
30 After him repaired Hananiah the son of Shelemiah, and Hanun the sixth son of Zalaph, another piece. After him repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah over against his chamber.
31 After him repaired Malchiah the goldsmith's son unto the place of the Nethinims, and of the merchants, over against the gate Miphkad, and to the going up of the corner.
32 And between the going up of the corner unto the sheep gate repaired the goldsmiths and the merchants.

尼十二:31-40

31我帶猶大的首領上城,使稱謝的人分為兩大隊,排列而行:第一隊在城上往右邊向糞廠門(dung gate)行走,
32在他們后頭的有何沙雅與猶大首領的一半,
33又有亞撒利雅、以斯拉、米書蘭、
34猶大、便雅憫、示瑪雅、耶利米。
35還有些吹號之祭司的子孫,約拿單的兒子撒迦利亞。約拿單是示瑪雅的兒子,示瑪雅是瑪他尼的兒子,瑪他尼是米該亞的兒子,米該亞是撒刻的兒子,撒刻是亞薩的兒子。
36又有撒迦利亞的弟兄示瑪雅、亞撒利、米拉萊、基拉萊、瑪艾、拿坦業、猶大、哈拿尼,都拿著神人大衛的樂器,文士以斯拉引領他們。
37他們經過泉門(fountain gate)往前,從大衛城的台階(the stairs of the city of David),隨地勢而上(at the going up of the wall),在大衛宮殿以上(above the house of David),直行到朝東的水門(the water gate eastward)。
38第二隊稱謝的人要與那一隊相迎而行。我和民的一半跟隨他們,在城牆上過了爐樓(the tower of the furnaces),直到寬牆(broad wall)。
39又過了以法蓮門(gate of Ephraim)、古門(old gate)、魚門(fish gate)、哈楠業樓(the tower of Hananeel)、哈米亞樓 (the tower of Meah),直到羊門(sheep gate),就在護衛門(prison gate)站住。
40于是,這兩隊稱謝的人連我和官長的一半,站在上帝的殿里。

KJV:

31 Then I brought up the princes of Judah upon the wall, and appointed two great companies of them that gave thanks, whereof one went on the right hand upon the wall toward the dung gate:
32 And after them went Hoshaiah, and half of the princes of Judah,
33 And Azariah, Ezra, and Meshullam,
34 Judah, and Benjamin, and Shemaiah, and Jeremiah,
35 And certain of the priests' sons with trumpets; namely, Zechariah the son of Jonathan, the son of Shemaiah, the son of Mattaniah, the son of Michaiah, the son of Zaccur, the son of Asaph:
36 And his brethren, Shemaiah, and Azarael, Milalai, Gilalai, Maai, Nethaneel, and Judah, Hanani, with the musical instruments of David the man of God, and Ezra the scribe before them.
37 And at the fountain gate, which was over against them, they went up by the stairs of the city of David, at the going up of the wall, above the house of David, even unto the water gate eastward.
38 And the other company of them that gave thanks went over against them, and I after them, and the half of the people upon the wall, from beyond the tower of the furnaces even unto the broad wall;
39 And from above the gate of Ephraim, and above the old gate, and above the fish gate, and the tower of Hananeel, and the tower of Meah, even unto the sheep gate: and they stood still in the prison gate.
40 So stood the two companies of them that gave thanks in the house of God, and I, and the half of the rulers with me:



尼希米時代的耶路撒冷城牆
(Ref:“Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah”- Leen & Kathleen Ritmeyer 2014)

點擊看放大圖 pdf
 

該段城牆的立體圖
         
尼希米時代的耶路撒冷城牆(立體圖)
 
尼希米時代的耶路撒冷城牆(平面圖)
         
圖一 圖二 圖三 圖四 圖五
         
圖六 圖七 圖八 圖九 圖十
         
圖十一 圖十二 圖十三 圖十四 圖十五
         
圖十六 圖十七 圖十八 圖十九 圖二十
         
圖二十一 東門(金門)
或 Shushan Gate
圖二十二
圖二十二A
   
         
考古資料:《聖經考古評論》(雙月刊)Mar/Apr 2009 (英文)

耶路撒冷城區和城牆的變遷

(Ref:梁天樞著《簡明聖經史地圖解》,1998年)


 

不同時代耶路撒冷的城門
(城門位置與“Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah”- Leen & Kathleen Ritmeyer 2014 有異)

(Ref:https://www.gotquestions.org/gates-of-Jerusalem.html

現在的耶路撒冷舊城的九個城門

現在的耶路撒冷舊城的九個城門(Google Map)


 

現在的耶路撒冷舊城的九個城門

Ref:http://www.itsgila.com/tipsgates.htm

Zion Gate

Zion Gate, on the southwest perimeter of the Old City, leads from the tomb of King David and the Upper Room on Mount Zion into the Armenian and the Jewish Quarters of the Old City. In Hebrew it’s called Sha’ar Tziyon (Zion Gate) and in Arabic, Bab a-Nabi Daud (Gate of the Prophet David).

Legend has it that Turkish Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent who commissioned the rebuilding of the city walls in 1538 was furious when he discovered that David’s Tomb was left unprotected outside the city walls. He summoned the two architects responsible before him and ordered that they be beheaded. The architects are buried right inside the Jaffa Gate, some say so that people entering and exiting the city could spit on their graves to show their displeasure that the tomb of Nabi Daud (the prophet David according to the Moslems) was left unprotected outside the city walls.

Jaffa Gate

Jaffa Gate, one of the city’s busiest, is located on the western perimeter, right above Hinnom Valley, the Valley of Hell (Gehenna in Greek). In ancient days, if you were a pilgrim who docked at the Mediterranean port of Jaffa and walked east for three days, or perhaps more, along the Jaffa Road, you would eventually reach the Jaffa Gate. Hence its name. In Hebrew the gate is translated Sha’ar Yafo. Yafo is the name for Jaffa in the Hebrew Bible, mentioned for example, in the Book of Jonah.

In Arabic the gate is called Bab el Halil which means Hebron Gate. If you exit the gate and turn left, cross the Hinnom Valley and walk straight along what’s nicknamed the Patriarchal Highway along Hebron Road, you would eventually reach Hebron. Halil in Arabic means “friend.” In Islam, Abraham’s title is the “friend of God.” Abraham is buried in Hebron.

Until the end of the 19th century, Jaffa Gate was locked every night to keep out marauders, hyenas, jackals and dragons. The dragons may have been imaginary, but the others were real. Travelers arriving at dusk had to carry lanterns so they could be identified and admitted into the city. Latecomers had to sleep outside the walls and wait until dawn when Jaffa Gate opened.

In 1898 Kaiser Wilhelm the Second made a spectacular pilgrimage to the Holy City accompanied by a huge entourage numbering over a thousand cheerleaders. In honor of this great occasion, the Turks made a breach in the wall by the Jaffa Gate so the Prussian Emperor could enter the Old City in a bronze chariot.

   

New Gate

New Gate is located on the northwestern perimeter of the walled city. Its Hebrew name is Sha’ar Hadash and its Arabic name is Bab el Jedid, both meaning “new.” The gate was opened in 1887 by the Turkish sultan Abed el Hamid after intense lobbying by Christians who had settled outside the walled city and wanted direct access to the Christian Quarter and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.

Damascus Gate

Damascus Gate, on Fridays and Saturdays, is the busiest gate leading into the city, with hundreds and sometimes thousands of shoppers looking for bargains, home-grown spices or the freshest fruits. Located along the northern wall of the Old City, Damascus Gate is named after the most important city to the north during nearly every historical period. Its Hebrew name is Sha’ar Shechem, meaning Nablus Gate, after the northern city of Nablus, established by the Romans 1900 years ago.

The Arabic name is Bab el Amud which means the Gate of the Pillar. The Romans built roads throughout their empire and laid milestones measuring distance. The zero point in Judea was a tall imposing pillar standing in the central plaza inside the Damascus Gate. Perhaps it was adorned with the bust of the emperor. The pillar, although pictured on a mosaic map from the sixth century, has never been found. However, archeologist Menachem Magen exposed the second century AD Roman piazza in the 1980s. The memory of that pillar is inscribed in the Arabic name, Bab el Amud, the Gate of the Pillar, to this very day, nineteen centuries later.

   

Flowers Gate (Herod's Gate)

Herod’s Gate, also called Flowers Gate, is located on the northeastern perimeter of the Old City.
Outside the gate, up on the hill is a cemetery which we view on the Rampart’s Walk. In Arabic, the
gate was called Bab es Sahirah, Cemetery Gate. But would you want to receive a letter addressed to
“cemetery neighborhood?” Well, neither did the residents of the northeast corner of the Old City.
Substituting only one letter, they changed the name of the gate to Bab el Zahirah meaning Flowers
Gate. Now that sounds welcoming!

In Hebrew the gate is named Sha’ar Perachim, Flowers Gate. There is another name, Sha’ar Hodus
which means Herod’s Gate. This part of the city was not enclosed by a wall during the reign of
Herod the Great. Roman Catholic tradition has it that the home of Herod Antipas was in the area of
the Flagellation Convent, near the gate.

Lions Gate

Lions Gate, located on the eastern perimeter of the Old City, is also known as
St. Stephen’s Gate. Tradition has it that Stephen, the first Christian martyr, was stoned in the Kidron Valley below. In Arabic the gate is called Bab el Asbat, the Gate of the Tribes, for they say the tribes of Israel entered the Old City through this gate. In Hebrew it’s called Sha’ar Ha-Arayot in honor of the decorations above the gate.

If you look carefully at the gate as you enter, you’ll see two lions on either side of the outside entrance. It’s said that in the 16th century, Suleiman the Magnificent ordered that these sculpted icons be placed above the gate as a reminder of the dream which led him to commission the rebuilding of the dilapidated walls.

One night the sultan dreamed that he was being devoured by four fierce lions which leapt upon him out of the thickets of the River Jordan. Trembling and feverish, he awoke in a great fright. When dawn broke, he summoned all the wise men of his kingdom to explain the significance of the dream. But words failed them until a wise old sheikh said, “Tell me Sultan Suleiman, what were you thinking about before you fell asleep?”

Suleiman thought for a few moments and said, “I was thinking of the best way to punish the people of Jerusalem - they haven’t been paying their taxes.” “Ohhh,” said the wizened old sheikh, “Don’t you know that our prophets David and Solomon ruled from the Holy City while lions guarded their thrones? If you treat this Holy City with goodness and mercy, you will be blessed as was David and Solomon.”

So Suleiman made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and realized that the walls needed rebuilding. He commissioned two architects who designed the route of the fortifications. The work took seven years and the walls are still standing to this
very day.

   

Golden Gate (Eastern Gate)

The Eastern Gate was identified by the Prophet Ezekiel when he wrote in chapter 44, “The prince will enter through this gate and he will eat bread before the Lord.” This is the origin of the Judeo-Christian belief that the Messiah will enter through the eastern gate.

Today, this gate is indeed shut and no one enters the Temple Mount from the east. In Hebrew, the portal is known as Sha’ar HaRahamim, the Gates of Mercy. It’s said that when the Messiah comes and the dead arise, they will enter through this gate to win eternal life. In Arabic, it’s called Bab el Rahmeh, the Gate of Eternal Life for the same reason. Another name is the Golden Gate which seems to retain a memory of the Gate Beautiful where Peter cured a lame man, as recorded in Acts 3. I’ve heard that the Greek word oraia means beautiful and a similar sounding word in Latin, aurea, means golden, thus the jump from beautiful to golden.

When Jesus came to Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, the crowds shouted, “Hosanna to the Son of David!” It’s thought that Jesus entered the Temple courtyard through this gate and then proceeded to drive out all those who were selling and buying, upsetting the tables of the money changers. In the time of the Second Temple, the Eastern Gate was open.

Dung Gate

Dung Gate. From inside the city, to reach the gate, one would walk downhill and it’s where Old City residents, over the centuries, would throw their garbage. Can you imagine anyone ever walking uphill to throw their garbage? Well, that name stuck in Hebrew as well - it’s called Sha’ar Ashpot. Paradoxically, the Dung Gate is today one of the cleanest areas in the Old City. In Arabic the gate is called Bab el Mugrabi meaning the gate of the North Africans. During the Turkish times there was a neighborhood inside the Dung Gate, close to the Wailing Wall called the Mugrabi neighborhood whose residents had originated from North Africa.

When you enter the Old City through the Dung Gate, you’ll walk up directly through the security outpost to the Western (“Wailing”) Wall plaza. If it happens to be a weekday when the Temple Mount is open to Jews and Christians, you can view the Dome of the Rock and the El Aqsa Mosque from close-up and photograph the inside
of the eastern gate which was blocked up in the 8th century to prevent unauthorized access to the Temple Mount.

   

Tanners Gate

Tanners' Gate is located in the Old City's southern wall, near the Dung Gate. It is the second oldest entrance into the Old City, a pedestrian gate probably built in the 12th Century by the Crusaders near a cattle market (hence the name). Suleiman the Magnificant filled in Tanners' Gate when he built the present-day Old City walls, gates and towers. The gate was discovered during post-1967 archeological investigations, partially reconstructed and interpreted as part of the Beth Shalom Garden. It was studied further during excavations along the Old City walls in 1995. The Jerusalem Foundation supported archeological excavation and restoration of the gate and construction of an adjoining plaza into the Old City, which was dedicated to the memory of Yitzhak Rabin in 1996. The restored gate was the first new opening into the Old City walls since 1887.

Huldah Gate (兩組封閉的城門:左邊兩個和右邊三個)


石階引向左邊的兩個城門
 

右邊的三個城門

The Huldah Gate is sealed and situated on the southern wall area. Named for the prophetess in
2 Kings 22:14, her entrance is actually two sets of gates, one a double gate and the other a triple
gate.

   



“哈西拿的子孫建立魚門(fish gate),架橫梁、安門扇和閂鎖。”(But the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build, who also laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.)(尼三:3)

“管理米斯巴、各荷西的兒子沙侖修造泉門(the gate of the fountain),立門、蓋門頂、安門扇和閂鎖。。”(But the gate of the fountain repaired Shallun the son of Col-hozeh, the ruler of part of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof。。)(尼三:15)

修造或建立城門的時候,我們就看到有架橫梁(laid the beams)、立門(built)、蓋門頂(covered)、安門扇(set up the doors)和閂鎖(locks and the bars)。。這方面的資料相當缺乏,我們會掠過不談。下圖是耶路撒冷的一個古城門,現已封閉不用。


從下一課開始,我就和大家進入正文,一同查考《尼希米記》。

有問題要提出來討論嗎?歡迎您和我聯絡。電郵地址是:

pcchong@singnet.com.sg